Cause & Effect: Corrosion in Amusement Rides



Corrosion on carnival/amusement rides is not only common, but it also can cause catastrophic failures as most recently seen in the Ohio State Fair accident which resulted in several injuries and one casualty. Not only is Steel City NDT LLC capable of testing for corrosion, but we are also able to tell you the extent of the corrosion.

  • Causes of Corrosion on Amusement Rides

  1. Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction that appears in a number of different forms
  2. A major cause of corrosion in amusement rides is due to acidic substances, most commonly rain, that creates rust over time
  3. Rust is the result of corroding steel, which takes place when the iron particles are exposed to oxygen and moisture (even humidity)
  4. When iron particles are exposed to oxygen, they become oxidized creating a cathodic area
  5. A corrosion pit is then formed where the affected iron particles were, and where they are now is called the corrosion product, or rust


  • Effects of Corrosion on Amusement Rides

  1. A decrease of tensile strength is a key effect of corrosion. The affected areas become thinned out due to corrosion, thus reducing the member’s maximum load threshold
  2. A member containing pitting corrosion is known to have a 2.5 times greater maximum load carrying capacity reduction
  3. A wider, larger member is said to have a lower stress threshold for crack initiation than that of a much smaller, thinner member when exposed to corrosion
  4. When pitting corrosion is involved, there is a greater negative impact on buckling strength


  • How Steel City NDT LLC Can Help

With the most recent accident at the Ohio State Fair, it was known that the specific ride which failed only underwent a visual examination. Not only this, but there are exponentially fewer inspectors than there are amusement rides in Ohio alone. Think about this from a Nationwide standpoint and you can see the problem immediately.

At Steel City NDT LLC, we offer a wide variety of inspection methods which can assist in not only locating corrosion, but determine the extent of corrosion within a majority of the members. Methods including, but not limited to, Ultrasonic Testing, Dye Penetrant Testing, and Magnetic Particle Testing will show anything happening beneath the surface (such as corrosion that cannot be seen with the naked eye). Had the ride at the Ohio State Fair been inspected with any of these methods, the failure could have been avoided altogether. Please e-mail us at or call us at 855-638-2489 if a new or existing ride has not undergone an inspection within the past year.


Ground Penetrating Radar: Utility Mapping


One of the major uses of Ground Penetrating Radar is to locate most utility lines, big or small. This is not only to find them in case of repairs, but also for construction site digs so that they are mapped out and easily avoided to avoid unnecessary damage which, in turn, avoids unnecessary costs.

  • Utilities GPR Can Locate

  1. Communications and Data Lines – Whether in a residential or commercial setting, it is highly recommended that these utilities are located to prevent unnecessary downtime and unnecessary costs. Communication and Data lines include, but are not limited to, phone lines, high speed internet lines, cable television lines, and the like.
  2. Gas, Water, and Sanitary Lines – Even more important than communication and data lines, all sorts of gas, water, and sanitary lines are able to be located with the correct equipment. Successful mapping of these lines will ensure that digs can be made in the correct areas to make necessary repairs, or so that these lines can be avoided altogether to avoid damage. As you know, if one of these lines is hit during a dig, thousands of dollars in repairs could be the result.
  • GPS Mapping of Utilities Located

  1. Once said utilities are located underground using GPR equipment, a GPS unit is able to be attached to the unit itself. Using the most groundbreaking software, it is possible to map out the utilities. Once these utilities are mapped out, not only can specific coordinates be provided, but a mapping system compatible with Google maps is also possible.

Cause & Effect: Corrosion in Piping

Leaky Pipe 2

Corrosion in piping is not only common, but it also can cause catastrophic failures in industrial, commercial, and residential settings. Not only is Steel City NDT LLC capable of testing for corrosion, but we are also able to tell you the extent of the corrosion.

  • Causes of Corrosion

  1. pH of the medium contained within the piping system
  2. Temperature of the medium – The hotter the water, the more pronounced the corrosion
  3. Velocity of the medium – Not only can excessive velocity cause corrosion, but sudden changes in direction due to elbows or turns can also do the same
  4. Chemical make up – If referring to a water piping system, things like excessive calcium can cause buildup and eventually corrosion
  5. Oxygen content – Oxygen is another thing that corrodes and degrades metals by converting the metal to rust
  • Effects of Corrosion

  1. Leaks – On average, about 25% of steel pipes will have a leaking connection within it’s first 5 years of use
  2. Drop in pressure – Even the slightest corrosion causes an irregular inner surface profile which causes unacceptable drops in pressure
  3. Air contamination – When compressed air passes through a rusted or corroded pipe, it becomes contaminated with hydrogen ions and rust particles
  4. Wasted energy – When a pipe becomes choked off by rust buildup, piping systems will consume extra power to overcome this friction


Ultrasonic Testing: A Brief Overview

Trans-Alaska Oil Pipeline (USA)

Ultrasonic Testing, or UT, is one of the most utilized and helpful Nondestructive Testing methods used. Not only can a certified inspector identify thicknesses of various metals, but they are also able to identify cracks, as well as their length and depth. Ultrasonic Testing is also widely used due to its high sensitivity abilities which allows to identify even the smallest of cracks. This method is also highly preferred due to the fact that technicians can run a full investigation while only needing to access one side of the test piece.

  • When did it all begin?

Ultrasonic Testing, or UT, began as early as the 1940’s, but it’s initial origins can be dated back to the early 1900’s. The first patent related to Ultrasonic Testing was issued in 1942 which was titled “Flaw Detecting Device and Measuring Instrument.” This patent was specifically issued due to this new device’s ability to investigate a test piece without destroying or compromising it. This was the first piece of equipment created which allowed for the detection and identification of subsurface flaws.

  • How does it work?

Ultrasonic Testing works by utilizing a piezoelectric crystal ‘transducer’ which induces periodic electrical pulses of ultrasonic frequency into the test piece. A jelly like substance, also known as couplant, is applied to both the transducer as well as the test piece. This allows for separation between the test piece and the transducer. The two common types of ultrasonic testing are known as reflection, or pulse-echo, and attenuation, or through-transmission. Their names are quite self-explanatory. When the reflection method is used, the transducer both sends and receives the sound waves from one side of the test piece. When the attenuation method is used, one transducer is used to send the sound waves and one (typically on the other side of the test piece) is used to receive them.

Ground Penetrating Radar: The Unique Applications

Gobekli Tepe is an archaeological site at the top of a mountain ridge in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, approximately 12 km northeast of the city of Sanlıurfa.

While The Most Ideal Application is Locating Voids and Utilities, GPR Goes Above and Beyond

When used in unison with the standard Ground Penetrating Radar equipment, equipment such as leak detectors, electromagnetic induction, and the like allow technicians to discover leaking pipes, trace and map utility lines with GPS, assist in archaeological digs, assess changes in the environment (soil contamination), and assist law enforcement without destroying evidence, among many others.

1. Archaeology

When Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is used with Electromagnetic Induction, technicians are able to assist archaeologists with digs. Using non-invasive techniques, historic sites can be ‘uncovered’ simply by utilizing these imaging systems. The crucial part of all of this is that these historic sites remain underground and protected.

Most recently, scientists, with the assistance of GPR technicians, were able to discover a holocaust escape tunnel without destroying or interrupting it.

2. Forensics

Again, with the key part of Ground Penetrating Radar being that it is non-invasive, technicians are easily able to assist law enforcement with investigations. Since non-invasive techniques are utilized, evidence will not be at risk for contamination or destruction. Buried weapon caches, evidence, or even clandestine burials are among the applications that technicians are able to properly locate and identify.

A great story recently came out of Vietnam where individuals are utilizing GPR to locate and return the remains of Vets missing in action from years ago.

3. Mars

Yes, Mars! Aboard  NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, a Ground Penetrating Radar system was utilized called the Shallow Subsurface Radar. This system was able to ping toward Mars more than 700 times per second. This system allowed scientists to see beneath the surface of Mars revealing that it had gone through an extreme ice age that would have put Earth’s ice age to shame. This system also revealed to the scientists that, after creating a 2d map of the subsurface, there is a lot of H2O and CO2 trapped.

In summary, it is clearly becoming more and more obvious that these Ground Penetrating Radar systems are becoming more and more important in the world of science, investigations, and even environmental monitoring. This is yet another nondestructive testing method that can not only teach us more, but do so noninvasively and safely.

The Basics of Non Destructive Testing – Part 1

Ultrasonic testing of a pipeline weld

Non-destructive testing methods test mechanical and other properties without permanently altering the subject, which saves time and money in product evaluation.

There are many companies that sell non-destructive machines to test material properties but they rarely explain how their methods work. Eng-Tips Forums member “afronova” posted the question, “Are there any good sites that inform about destructive and non-destructive material testing techniques?”

Well, afronova, there is now.

And so begins a three-part series on nine methods of non-destructive material testing. In part one, we discuss radiographic testing, ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle inspection.

1. RT – Radiographic Testing

Radiographic testing is often used to inspect assembled components and to find flaws in complex structures. It uses short wavelength electromagnetic radiation in the form of high-energy photons to penetrate materials and inspect for hidden flaws. Neutron radiographic testing uses neutrons in the place of photons.

Neutron radiation can pass easily through lead or steel but is stopped by plastics, water and oils. When radiation directed through the material hits a defect, it scatters. Variations in the radiation exiting the opposite side of the material thus allow quality professionals to identify the location of defects as well as determine the thickness and composition of the material.

Radiographic testing of a welded joint

Radiographic testing of a welded joint

2. UT – Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic testing is used to detect defects in materials of any shape or type so long as they have smooth surfaces. Ultrasonic testing uses a transducer connected to a diagnostic machine to send vibrations/sound waves through a material. The apparatus is passed over the object being inspected. This often requires the use of a couplant (like oil or water) to connect the transducer and the object, which decreases inaccuracies and false readings in the results.

There are two methods of receiving the signal. First is ‘reflection’, where the transducer can both send and receive the signal. The other is ‘attenuation’, where the transmitter sends ultrasound through one surface and a separate receiver detects the amount that reaches the other side through the medium. Any decrease in the sound detected is caused by defects.

3. MPI – Magnetic Particle Inspection

Magnetic particle inspection is commonly used outdoors and at remote locations for detecting surface and subsurface defects. It is based on the concept of magnetic flux leakage. Magnetic flux leakage occurs when an additional north and south pole are created by a crack in a magnet. At the crack, the magnetic field bulges to form a ‘leakage’.

Iron particles concentrated along magnetic field linesIron particles concentrated along magnetic field lines

In magnetic particle inspection, a part is magnetized either directly or indirectly. Direct magnetization occurs when an electric current is passed through the test object and a magnetic field forms in the material. Indirect magnetization does not involve a current applied to the material but occurs when a magnetic field is applied from an outside source.

Since iron particles concentrate along magnetic field lines, when they are applied to the magnetized part they will cluster around a leakage.

The above three methods have different uses and require different amounts of training to complete but all will leave your part just as you found it.

In part two we discuss dye penetrant inspection, eddy current testing and thermographic inspection. In part three we discuss leak testing, guided wave testing and visual testing.


Credit: Hailey Kupiec posted on June 15, 2016 | Comment | 1241 views

Ground penetrating radar is the key to concrete cutting safety

Cracked concrete texture closeup background

Many construction outfits are coming round to the notion that concrete scanning services are vital for job safety. Whether it’s retrofitting buildings to make them earthquake-proof or ADA-compliant, or remodelling existing structures to add capacity, it is essential to know exactly how to avoid hazards that may be contained within concrete. More and more they are turning to ground-penetrating radar (GPR) scanning to know exactly where to cut and drill to reach vital building components and avoid necessary structural supports and conduit lines.

Move to improve safety in remodelling projects

Penhall Technologies is a division of California-based Penhall Company, which offers concrete cutting, coring, demolition, and repair services. Penhall Technologies specialises in GPR scanning services and has been using GPR to scan for concrete hazards in the U.S. since 2001 and in Canada before that. With a safety-driven mission and culture, Penhall considers GPR the most reliable, non-destructive way to locate targets and hazards within concrete structures prior to cutting or coring.

The company has 38 locations in 18 states and Canada, and operates across North America. They see a variety of regional building trends that affect the need for concrete scanning. In California and other parts of the West Coast, the company does a lot of scanning work for floor and wall retrofit core placement while retrofitting hospitals and universities for earthquakes. In Hawaii, their projects include beachfront property remodelling; rather than doing a full building demolition, builders strip the building down and use the concrete base to piece together an entirely new structure – one that is ADA-compliant. In addition, they scan for rebar in existing structures in cities with older buildings, for example San Francisco or Washington, DC.

“We’ve seen an increase in column reinforcement projects, where people want to add extra levels to a stadium, parking structure, or airport,” said Penhall Technologies President Simon James. “In the past they may have had to demo the entire structure and start over, but now because the engineer can avoid hazards within the concrete, they’re able to actually calculate how much weight that column can bear with extra reinforcement.”

James explains that until about 15 years ago, workers going in “blind” while cutting into existing structures often risked hitting live conduit. “Now many industry experts recognise that cutting into these hazard types can be devastating if people do not scan first. GPR technology makes the project far safer and I consider its use to be a real game-changer.” According to Penhall, structural radar imaging is a service that quickly pays for itself many times over.

Penhall has a zero accident safety culture – no accidents are acceptable. The company has established a set of safety rules, practices, and behaviours – before they even touch the equipment they are thinking safety. The process begins with site surveying, during which the GPR technician leaves the equipment in the car before the job. He has a notepad and meets with the customer on site. They discuss exactly what the customer wants to achieve. He walks around and writes down every hazard. This pre-task planning includes looking for any structural signs that may signal a potential problem. For example, if there is a horizontal beam, there may be conduit along the floor. The scanners are also looking for other trades that may be doing something unsafe near the concrete cutting area and would try to eliminate the danger.

James likens the process to the one used by detectives. “We ask them to talk to the customer and be aware of the environment, the floor, and other utility lines. They look in advance to see if there is post tension cabling, and note the gauge of the rebar – before they even get their equipment out. They can avoid a major disaster by taking these 10 to 15 minutes to scope out the job.”

They also encourage all scanners to share anything new or challenging and to contact another scanner “live” to get a second opinion, especially when as-built drawings do not match GPR data – a common issue. They have also gone directly to GPR equipment supplier GSSI when faced with unusual situations to get advice on data interpretation. The company holds internal debriefings as well as debriefings with their customer’s management team when necessary.

Getting beneath the surface with GPR

Penhall uses a variety of equipment for scanning. A large percentage of their projects are conducted using a handheld device that combines a screen and antenna in one unit. The equipment is small and lightweight, which makes it easily manoeuvrable. This is extremely important for ergonomics, since scanners can be on the job for 8-10 hours a day.

When they need to get more granular with the depth or for unusual spaces, they use a larger GPR control unit, coupled with a variety of antennas for specific needs. Examples include a 1600 MHz general purpose concrete antenna, 400 MHz utility detection and mapping antenna, and the 2000 MHz Palm Antenna, a compact, integrated concrete antenna for tightly spaced areas like corners, against walls, and around obstructions. “The ability to interchange antennas is very valuable in more complicated scanning situations, especially for in-ground utility scanning,” said James.

Data analysis is key

In addition to the actual GPR concrete scanning step, data analysis is crucial in the quality of the work and the ability to safely and accurately pinpoint hazards. “It is as important to investigate the environment we are scanning and not only understand and assess a hazard, but also to be able to evaluate anomalies in the data for potential issues,” said Elizabeth Wilson, Penhall’s Director of Field Operations. “It takes knowledge, training, and experience to correctly interpret GPR data.”

This knowledge base is enhanced by Penhall’s training and mentoring philosophy. Two-person teams include a newer employee paired with a more experienced scanner. Expert scanners from California and Toronto hubs mentor staff, oversee their work, and check results.

The company believes it takes a special aptitude to understand the science behind GPR. To get employees with the right skills, they have begun to hire from outside the construction industry, for example those with either a geology or geophysics background. They also have a very active focus on hiring veterans, including those with either non-destructive testing (NDT) or bomb disposal training.

GPR allows safe remodelling of existing structures

One example of how GPR can be used to ensure job site safety was at a major hotel, where the owners wanted to build a shopping mall on top of a multi-story compound. One option was to demolish the compound, which itself posed a host of costs and safety issues. Instead, the owners decided to actually build on top of the building by reinforcing the entire structure. To reinforce the structure, they needed to drill into the basement and install reinforcing rebar and concrete columns. “Drilling into the basement can do more harm than good,” says James. “We were able to core and scan the area. An accurate understanding of where all the existing structural elements were in the basement enabled the contractor to avoid damaging the existing structure.”

Another example is a case of a mini skyscraper in Canada in which a contractor was renovating two floors of a building and installing disabled bathrooms. Safely installing all the necessary plumbing was a challenge because the floors contained a variety of structural elements running through them, including post tension cable. James explains that cutting post tension cable is not only dangerous for the structure and integrity of the building; it’s extremely dangerous for whoever cuts it. The cables are under incredibly high tension and can whiplash. There are no drawings that accurately lay out where the cables are, or even if the cables are in the concrete.

With the help of GPR, Penhall’s staff was able to locate the precise location of existing cables and enable the cutting crew to cut safely without causing any damage. The plumbers were then able to go to the job site and safely renovate the bathrooms.

At a major university stadium project in Arizona, contractors needed to reinforce columns and required a very accurate scan of the rebar placement. To ensure the structural integrity of the columns it was critical that they not cut into the rebar, and there was little to no room for error. Penhall analysts were able to sample scan columns with precision and allow the engineers and scanning team to build a project plan that would keep the project safe and moving forward.

Much like insurance, scanning brings a peace of mind for safety and cost savings that adds the real value. The bottom line is that cutting without scanning is a gamble. In addition, doing a small sample core or cut can help solidify data found in the scan. Taking a few minutes to test an area can prevent many potentially costly losses.
Edited from source by Joseph Green. Source: GSSI

5 Cool, Practical Uses for Phased Array Antennas and Transducers

Commercial airplane

Phased Arrays Explained – the Really Short Version

So what is a phased array antenna? Any antenna, from the one in your smartphone to a thousand-foot diameter radio telescope, does just two things – it sends out or receives electromagnetic energy waves like radio, radar, TV, microwave, etc.  Conventional antennas have a limited ability to direct their beams. That’s one reason many radar antennas rotate – to scan the entire sky they must physically move the beam.

A phased array antenna is different. It combines an array of small, fixed, individually controlled antennas that can direct the beam in multiple directions. It can also be used to improve reception.  

So what’s a phased array transducer? Basically, it’s the ultrasonic version of a phased array antenna – it beams (and acquires) ultrasonic waves using a multiple transducer array.

1. Sit Back and Enjoy the Flight

Ever wonder how your airline keeps you hooked-up to the internet at 35,000 feet over the Atlantic?  It may well be a phased array antenna.

Here’s the problem – as your jam-packed jetliner is winging its way to your next tiny hotel room, the satellites it’s using to stay connected to the internet are changing their relative positions. Conventional, fixed antennas can’t handle that kind of variation, but a phased array antenna is just the thing for ensuring clear reception – even over Greenland.    

2. Non Destructive Inspection – of Course!

Phased array transducers are the core of advanced ultrasonic inspection. Used for inspecting welds and other high value structures, phased array ultrasonic systems directionally beam waves of ultrasonic energy through the inspection piece. This enables the phased array transducer to be mounted in one or a limited number of positions. In contrast, a conventional ultrasonic inspection system uses a transducer that must be manually moved over point on the test piece. This can lead to inaccuracies and even missed defects, especially if the inspection piece has a complex geometry.

Phased array transducers – suddenly a complicated inspection task is lot more simple and accurate.

3. Talk Radio? Yeah, We’ve Got That.

Ever wonder why AM radio stations frequently use multiple antennas to broadcast their signal? All those towers actually form one big phased array antenna. Why do it? One, it lets broadcasters direct their signal towards the geographic area that holds their prime listeners. Two, as the sun sets listener reception can be improved by switching phases and power levels in individual antennas.

Sports, politics, news, oldies – all brought to you by phased array antennas.

4. Admit it – You Want a Phased Array Radar for Your Car

That day may not be far off. Researchers at a major automotive company have demonstrated a small phased array radar designed to detect and identify pedestrians. With over 4,000 pedestrian fatalities every year in the US, it’s a problem in need of an effective solution.   

Phased arrays provide a wide detection angle and rapid object acquisition. Hooked up to the vehicle’s control system, it can bring a car or truck to a hard stop before the driver even realizes that a pedestrian stepped into the danger zone.

5. The Ultimate Stormchaser

While not yet in widespread use, phased array radars may provide the ultimate early warning system for tornados and other dangerous weather. The Navy even built a mobile unit mounted to a tricked-out truck. Think of it as your ultimate pimp-my-ride for the stormchasing crowd.

More than a science project, phased array weather radars promise faster, deeper scans of weather systems and that means earlier, more accurate weather warnings.

Why the World Would End Without Leak Detection Equipment

close up image of electric bulb explosion

Leak detection equipment is a vital part of nondestructive testing. This type of testing is used to check for pressurization and other related concerns without doing any damage to the parts that are being tested. If it wasn’t for this kind of equipment being used on a regular basis, there are plenty of bad things that could happen. Here are just a few of the concerns that end users would have to deal with if they didn’t have the benefit of knowing that the systems and parts they need were thoroughly tested for leaks before they received them.

1). Parts and systems would explode

Without proper leak detection techniques and the equipment that makes them possible, the parts and systems that are created wouldn’t get tested properly. These parts and systems would then be in danger of exploding when they were put under pressure, which could cause serious problems. Not only could people be at risk, but the structures into which these systems were installed would also be at significant risk of damage due to explosions. Even the leaks themselves could cause high levels of harm.

2). People would be hurt or killed

Not only the explosions that could result, but the leaks that would occur, could be very dangerous to people working and living in the structure or in the immediate area. Depending on what was leaking, there could be toxic or dangerous substances spilling out of a part or a system that was designed to keep that substance contained. Over time, these kinds of substances could end up poisoning people through contact with the substance or through the inhalation of a chemical that is dangerous to human beings. The number of people injured or killed could be significant.

3). Costs would soar due to damage and replacement issues

With leaks and the potential for explosions to consider, there are serious costs that could occur without the use of equipment for leak detection. Not only would the parts and systems where the leaks occurred become damaged and have to be replaced, but the structures around them could also have problems. That’s an important issue to consider, and one of the reasons that the world would probably end if there wasn’t good equipment that could be used for leak detection. With the right kind of equipment, no one has to worry about the potential for significant cost and damage.

The world might not technically end without the equipment used for leak detection, but it could definitely be a more frightening and dangerous place to live in. Rather than take that kind of risk, it’s much better to have proper leak detection equipment in place, so everyone from the creators and testers of the parts and systems to the end users have less to worry about. The safety and peace of mind that come with proper equipment for the detection of leaks goes a very long way toward keeping nondestructive testing methods up to date and successful.

Welding Wonders: 4 Fun Facts About Magnetic Particle Inspection

WeldingEveryone loses from low-quality manufacturing, which is why welders and metal manufacturers have developed magnetic particle inspection or MPI. Designed to detect cracks and flaws, MPI is one of the most popular quality assurance methods in the metals industry. If you work or take an interest in metals manufacturing, you should know that MPI:

1. Saves Lives

MPI involves sending a magnetic field metal structures. If there are any weaknesses on or within the metal’s surface, they will disrupt the magnetic field, causing iron particles to gather in those areas. Welders can thus detect and fix damage that is too small for the eye to see. Such damage can quickly compromise the metal in high-stress situations, which can be life-threatening when it occurs on cars, planes, military equipment, and other devices. Thanks to MPI, however, manufacturers can fix or scrap weak metal before it goes into service. This likely saves thousands of lives all over the world.

2. Relies On UV Rays

Though we often hear about it as an environmental and public health threat, UV light is a metal inspector’s best friend. Inspectors have to detect fluorescent particles during MPI, but such particles are not visible in white light. When exposed to UV rays, these particles begin to glow, allowing inspectors to identify them with ease. UV light is available in different intensities depending on the specific particles.

Prospective inspectors need not worry: there’s nothing dangerous about this task. MPI lights rely entirely on UV-A rays, which do not cause the eye and skin damage often associated with ultraviolet radiation.

3. Can’t Work Without Cleanliness

When inspectors perform MPI, cleanliness really is close to godliness. For all the sophisticated equipment and science, inspections cannot be performed correctly unless the product being inspected is pristine. It is particularly important to remove paint, grease, and oil, as these substances trap ferrous particles and prevent them from moving to weak parts of the metal. This produces false positives, causing welders and manufacturers to use metals that are not safe. MPI experts are thus urging their colleagues to better clean the metal prior to inspection.

4. Is On The Move

MPI is currently the most common form of metal surface testing in the United States and Europe, and has been so for more than half a century. As other forms of metal testing are being developed, however, the popularity of MPI in the West has begun to decline. At the same time, the use of MPI is growing in India, China, and other emerging economies, where it provides a convenient and inexpensive way to test metal. Those who specialize in MPI and companies that make the technology will thus have increasing opportunities for work and consulting in middle-income countries.

Steel City NDT provides magnetic particle inspection and other non-destructive testing services for metals of all types and purposes. For more information about improving the safety and quality of your wares, visit our website today.